History

Raupatu

Raupatu

The wars between Māori and Pākehā in the 1860s were largely conflict over land. Tauranga Moana experienced one of the most well-known conflicts, in the Battle of Gate Pā (Pukehinahina) and the Battle of Te Ranga.

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Raupatu

The wars between Māori and Pākehā in the 1860s were largely conflict over land. Tauranga Moana experienced one of the most well-known conflicts, in the Battle of Gate Pā (Pukehinahina) and the Battle of Te Ranga. The Battle of Gate Pā at Pukehinahina in1864 is remembered as the battle where hugely outnumbered Māori defenders managed to resist an experienced British force and secure what many regard as a famous Māori victory and arguably one of the most important in the New Zealand Wars. However, during that same year, the British were to have their revenge, when they attacked unprepared Māori in what has become known as the Battle of Te Ranga.

Ngamanawa Incorporation is owned largely by shareholders who whakapapa to Ngāti Ranginui, specifically the Ngāti Hangarau Hapū in Tauranga Moana. The lands that make up the Incorporation are some of the traditional or ancestral lands of the Hapū and therefore the relevance to Raupatu is of strong significance. During the British Invasion in the 1860’s, much of Ngāti Hangarau’s land was acquired as part of enforced sales; other land was taken without payment and legitimised through legislation. Vast amounts of land was also surveyed and distributed to military settlers, founding the new town of Tauranga. The people of Ngāti Hangarau and Māori throughout Tauranga Moana would feel the effects of deprived prosperity, mana and the ability to control their own destiny through the land loss. The impact on their future generations would be of similar consequence. The Raupatu and its connection to the Ngamanawa area can be heard in the Tauparapara composed by the late Ngāti Hangarau kaumātua, Kaikohe Roretana which can be found is the next pillar of information.

Ngamanawa Incorporation also have links to numerous other Hāpu and Iwi across Tauranga Moana as well as Ngāti Raukawa, who have a specific connection through the Whaiti Kuranui Block. During warfare throughout the 1800s, the forest land from Ngamanawa to Kuranui remained a neutral territory or refuge. 

 

 

 

Te Manu Korero

Te Manu Korero

Tū kau ana ahau i roto wharenui o Hangarau

Me mihi noa ake ki te Paki o Matariki

Ki a Hangarau noa ōku mahara ki te tini o te tau

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Te Manu Korero

Tū kau ana ahau i roto wharenui o Hangarau
Me mihi noa ake ki te Paki o Matariki
Ki a Hangarau noa ōku mahara ki te tini o te tau
Kua ngaro nei ki te po
Ka tītoki rā taku haere ki Ngamanawa
Tū ana 'hau i te mauri o Ngāti Hangarau
I Manukōtuku, kia mārama ai taku titiro ki Te Ranga
Ki Pukehinahina, ki te tini ā te kura e moe noa mai rā.
Haere rā e Pā mā mai te riri horahora, i ngaro ai koutou
I riro ai te whenua i te muru pokanoa ā te keha
Ka tiawhe rā taku haere ki Moerangi, ki Araiteuru, ki Matariki,
Ki Wharetangata, ki Te Korokoro nohoanga o ngā kuia me ngā koroua
Ka tika ai te whakatauki nei:
Whatungarongaro he tangata, toitū te whenua

The Messenger

I stand before the porch of the meeting house called Hangarau at Bethlehem. I salute the Paki o Matariki, the insignia of King Tawhiao, over the doorway.
My thoughts turn to Hangarau, to the people and events lost in the passing of many years. My minds journey leads me to Ngamanawa. I stand in the spirit of Hangarau, on Manukotuku; from this place can be seen the battle sites of Te Ranga and Pukehinahina, Gate Pa, and the many chiefs now dead. Go my Fathers from that widespread fighting; you were lost and gone with the land that was unjustly confiscated from us, a festering sore, our long standing grievance. My mind’s journey travels on to the places in Ngamanawa, Moerangi, Araiteuru, Matariki; At Wharetangata, above Korokoro, the women and old men sought refuge during the fighting. That old saying of ours is right. People pass away, The land remains forever.

 

Formation of the Incorporation

Formation of the Incorporation

The catalyst behind the formation of Ngamanawa Incorporation was the 1968 Notice of Intention to Take Land for Electricity Works by the Tauranga Joint Generation Committee

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Formation of the Incorporation

The catalyst behind the formation of Ngamanawa Incorporation was the 1968 Notice of Intention to Take Land for Electricity Works by the Tauranga Joint Generation Committee. The proposal was a major concern and quickly led to the consolidation of land titles (as listed below) and ultimately the inception of the Incorporation which could legally negotiate with the Tauranga Joint Generation Committee, on behalf of the many owners of each block involved. 

Ngamanawa Incorporation solicitor, Mr E.D (Ed) Morgan wrote to the MP for Eastern Maori, Mr Brown Reweti, in 1968, "At one stage the Committee proposed to take the whole Block by proclamation and then transfer to a neighbouring European owner that part of the Block which it did not require." 

The original intention of the Tauranga Joint Generation Committee was to take 5000 acres under the Public Works Act. However, after much protest by the owners, and the appointment of an engineer from the Ministry of Works, 120 acres was assessed as necessary for the hydro project.

Subsequently, the hydro project went ahead and meant a diversion of streams and construction of dams, tunnels and other significant work to supply water to four power stations. These are:

Lloyd Mandeno Station - was commissioned in 1972, it is sited on the west bank of the Mangapapa River and produces 16 MW.

Lower Mangapapa Station (commissioned in 1979), is 2.8 kilometres (km) further downstream and produces 5.6 MW

Ruahihi  - 4km downstream (commissioned in 1981) produces 20 MW.

Kaimai 5 Station - which sits beside a diversion tunnel feeding Lake Mangaonui, produces 0.3 MW, it was commissioned in 1994. 

1970 saw the amalgamation of titles of various Te Papa Paengaroa, Tauwharawhara and Kaimai Blocks into the Ngamanawa Block. Ngamanawa Incorporation was set up by order of Maori Land Court on 6 May 1971 with the first meeting of the Incorporation being held on Monday 12 July 1971 at the Maori Land Court in Tauranga. Victor Carlos Smith was appointed as Chairman and H C Waterhouse was appointed Secretary. The Committee comprised Mary Te Amo Lucas, Eugene Denis Morgan, Louis Desmond Smith, David Haumaha and Ivan Williams. Mr Waterhouse was later replaced by John Menneer as Secretary.

Kaimai No 3 was included in the Incorporation on 24 February 1977 and part of Whaiti Kuranui 5D2 was amalgamated with the Incorporation early in 1983.

Use of the Ngamanawa Forest

Use of the Ngamanawa Forest

A primary concern of the original committee members of Ngamanawa Incorporation was the utilisation of its land, in particular to provide some benefits for the many owners.

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Use of the Ngamanawa Forest

A primary concern of the original committee members of Ngamanawa Incorporation was the utilisation of its land, in particular to provide some benefits for the many owners. Although some income had come in over the years from timber rights and grazing leases on small areas, the owners regularly had difficulty meeting the rate demands. A forestry scheme was identified as the key opportunity and by early 1976, proposals had been received from major Forestry companies. It is worth noting that the Incorporation had an obligation to retain the ownership of the land and meet any outgoings in relation to the land. Before any worthwhile distribution of dividends to the shareholders could be made, a substantial sum would have to be received from the use of the land. The Incorporation was therefore obliged to see the best financial arrangement possible in a forestry scheme. Given no other organisation was prepared to advance the funds to the Incorporation to preserve the whole of the indigenous forest cover, the Incorporation felt obliged to come to some arrangement whereby at least some of the land could produce an income for the benefit of succeeding generations of owners.

The Ngamanawa Forestry is situated about 30km south of Tauranga. The Forest is positioned on the edge of the Mamaku plateau. The total area of land is 3888.4 hectares, of which 3084 hectares are situated within the Tauranga district and 803 hectares within the Matamata district.

Forestry

Forestry

After six years of negotiations between five different forestry companies a Lease agreement between Ngamanawa Incorporation and New Zealand Forest Products was signed at the Annual General Meeting

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Forestry

After six years of negotiations between five different forestry companies a Lease agreement between Ngamanawa Incorporation and New Zealand Forest Products was signed at the Annual General Meeting of the Incorporation on 28 May 1977, the term of lease being for 99 years.

Since then, the Lease was purchased from New Zealand Forest Products (who changed name to Elders Resources NZFP Limited) who then transferred its interest in the Lease to Tasman Forestry Limited. In 1989, the Lease was surrended and replaced with a Forestry Right incorporating all three land blocks. In 1995, Fletcher Challenge Forests was created to administer the forestry activities of Fletcher Challenge Limited which included Tasman Forestry Limited. In 2004 Fletcher Challenge Forests assigned its interest in the Forestry Right to the current investor or grantee the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan (OTPP).

OTPP’s investment is currently managed by Hancock Forest Management NZ Ltd.

PF Olsen Ltd has been contracted by OTPP to carry out the annual budget consisting of forest management, harvesting operations and woodflow.  

The current Ngamanawa Forestry Right consists of a total land area of 1672 hectares, with the majority being planted in Radiata pine. It has an agreement term that expires in 2048.

The first crop of trees was planted during the period from 1979 to 1990.

These were grown under two main treatment regimes:

  • Pruned stands where branches were pruned off the lower portion of the tree (up to 6.5m) to produce a higher quality log at the base of the tree, and:
  • Framing stands where no pruning took place but trees were grown in a manner to produce sawlogs with small branches for housing and construction type use.

An indigenous forest area was surrended from the Forestry Right upon request from the Incorporation in 2000.

Harvesting of the Forestry Right, commenced in 2005, with the Incorporation receiving 16% of the net log value (stumpage) for every cubic metre of wood sold.

Harvesting is scheduled to occur on a regular basis until 2016 when the last of the original trees planted will be harvested.

In 2010/2011 a variation to the Incorporation Forestry Right was granted. This variation was a request by the Incorporation for surrender of 240 hectares to own and manage outright.

The pine trees planted during 2010/11 are growing stronger than forecasted. The Incorporation has chosen to undertake a pruned regime contrasting to the unpruned Forestry Right with OTPP. In 2016 pruning commenced with contractors achieving an average pruned height of 4.14m.